Lab-3: Cyber Threat Analysis
In Lab-3, you will do some cyber threat analysis by browsing several websites and services maintained by either security companies, volunteers, or hackers. Nothing will harm your computer as long as you don’t push the limits by clicking on the links and ignoring the browser’s security warnings.
To ensure %100 security, you can consider using the Firefox browser inside your Kali VM instead of using the browser at your computer. If you proceed with your computer, then it is recommended to update your browser if it is out of date.
Section-1: Analysis of zone-h.org
Zone-h.org is used and most probably operated by hackers to share the websites that they defaced. They don’t provide any details on how they hacked the website; instead, they share the URL of the defaced website and a mirror for the defaced webpage.
If you are planning to use your computer instead of Kali VM, it is strongly suggested to open a new incognito/InPrivate/Private browser window for the following steps:
1) Enter the website:Â www.zone-h.org
2) Click on the Archive menu on the top menu. You will see the result screen similar to below:
There is a lot of information on defaced websites on this page, including the original URL and the hacked version of the website (on the mirror link at the rightmost column). Hacked versions of the websites give some clues on the motivations of the hackers; you can see political reasons, have some fun, or a basis to make cyberspace secure.
The legends M and R provide more insight on the defacement. M means mass defacement. If you click one of the M letters, you can see the defacements initiated from a specific IP address. Mass defacements are usually succeeded by the help of scripts. Hackers prepare the scanning and exploitation scripts, scan thousands of websites for a particular vulnerability, and exploit the ones that have the specific vulnerability.
3) Click on one of the M letters you spotted, and see the websites defaced from the same IP address. You can see the IP address in the address bar.
Note: You can perform a whois query to see the detailed information about the IP address you found, including contact information and geographical location.
4) To see a redefacement, you can click one of the R letters you spotted.
Below is an example screenshot of a redefacement, myschool.ng website has been defaced twice in two years.
5) You can click the ENABLE FILTERS link at the top and search for the websites with gov extension. You can see the result of this query below.
A pastebin site hosts the text-based data such as source codes, code snippets, and anything worth sharing. Pastebin.com is the oldest pastebin site. Pastebin.com had been hosting the pastes of the hacktivist group, Anonymous. After pastebin.com started monitoring the site for illegally pasted data, Anonymous began to a new service:Â https://anonpaste.org. This pastebin site is used for hacktivist purposes. Anybody can paste text here and -so-called- securely sent. You cannot search among pasted content.
There are many small and restricted pastebin sites on the dark web. A specific hacker group may share things like exploit codes, malicious payloads internally. They also use the pastebin services to share the information they stole like passwords, credit card numbers, etc.
You can see the public pastes in the pastebin website. Google indexes public pastes. You can perform the following searches on Google and check whether there are pastes in pastebin.com. Please review the search sites to get an idea of what kind of information is being shared among hackers in the pastebin.
Â· Exploit code site:pastebin.com
Â· Shellcode site:pastebin.com
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