Import Substitution Industrialization in Brazil

Import Substitution Industrialization in Brazil In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Brazil was the classic case of a country that exported primary commodities. Its principal crop, coffee, accounted for a large share of its production and the overwhelming majority of its export earnings. This economic structure was supported by a political system dominated… Continue reading Import Substitution Industrialization in Brazil

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Governments in the advanced industrialized countries

Governments in the advanced industrialized countries refused to make significant concessions, and by the mid-1980s the NIEO had disappeared from the international agenda. The failure of the NIEO has been attributed to a number of factors. First, developing countries were unable to establish and maintain a cohesive coalition. The heterogeneity of developing countries’ interests made… Continue reading Governments in the advanced industrialized countries

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Trade and Development Economic Reform

Trade and Development II: Economic Reform was becoming apparent that a small group of East Asian economies were outperforming all other developing countries based on what many viewed as a neoliberal strategy. Third, a severe economic crisis in the early 1980s forced governments to embark on reform, and as they did, the International Monetary Fund… Continue reading Trade and Development Economic Reform

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Structuralism and import substitution

Whereas structuralism and import substitution industrialization (ISI) shaped development strategies during the first 35 years of the post-war period, the last 30 years have been dominated by neoliberal- ism and export-oriented industrialization. In contrast to structuralism, with its skepticism about the market and faith in the state, neoliberalism is highly skeptical of the state’s ability… Continue reading Structuralism and import substitution

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The Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals Question Can the Millennium Development Goals eradicate extreme poverty? Overview Members of the UN agreed in 2000 to focus their development policies around the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are ambitious, and include (among other things) cutting extreme poverty (measured as living on less     Domestic and International… Continue reading The Millennium Development Goals

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Discussion on The East Asian Model

The East Asian Model 137 Finally, even if governments could overcome these obstacles, it was un- clear what model they should shift to. Far-reaching reforms would require them to reevaluate the underlying strategy they were using to industrialize. The only available alternative to ISI was a market-oriented development strat- egy (one we will look at… Continue reading Discussion on The East Asian Model

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Emerging Problems with Import Substitution

EMERGING PROBLEMS WITH IMPORT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION By the late 1960s, ISI was generating two important economic imbalances, which together suggested that it had reached the limits of its utility as a de- velopment strategy. The first imbalance lay in government budgets. ISI tended to generate persistent budget deficits because it prescribed heavy government involvement in… Continue reading Emerging Problems with Import Substitution

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