ETHC 445 final exam
This exam covers all 14 TCO’s.
For each of the following multiple choice questions, please select the Philosophy (and/or Philosopher) which best goes with each description below.
Question 1.1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient’s direction reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)
Hobbes’ State of Nature
Aristotle’s concept of Virtue
Thomas Aquinas’ concept of conscience
Socrates’ concept of excellence
Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of temperance? (Points : 5)
Exercising control over one’s own desires and inclinations
Keeping one’s temper under control
Minimizing the impact of one’s decisions
Seeking the good of others before one’s own
Overcoming one’s passions
Question 3.3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the double standard. Double standard consists of what? (Points : 5)
Discriminating in the application of ethical criteria based on our own preferences
Setting aside ethical criteria in special cases
Taking steps to avoid condemnation of others
Using one set of criteria for judging cases concerning ourselves and another for all others
Suspending judgment when concerned that the consequences would be too severe
Question 4.4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5)
To indicate what is prohibited or impossible
To indicate that one choice is better than others
To show what actions are legal
To convey requirements and obligations
To indicate that there are really no choices available
Question 5.5. (TCOs 7, 8) Ethics that teaches us what we should do in our own self-interest is taught through which style of ethics? (Points : 5)
Rousseau’s social constructionism
Contemporary care-based ethics
Plato’s “Ring of Gyges” example
Question 6.6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) John Locke, as a Social Contract theorist, is said to have been the most influential person who was not actually present at the table when what document was written? (Points : 5)
The Articles of Confederation
The Declaration of Independence
The Magna Carta
The Treaty of Westphalia
Question 7.7. (TCOs 3, 6) Agricultural biofuels are not properly a renewable source of energy in the environmental ethics debate. Which of the following also is not a renewable source of energy? (Points : 5)
Tidal flow generators
Biomass waste systems
Question 8.8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) The notion that the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom? (Points : 5)
St. Thomas Aquinas
Question 9.9. (TCOs 8, 9) “We ought to do whatever will promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” This is an example of what? (Points : 5)
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Social Contract Theory
Question 10.10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called “valid” when: (Points : 5)
the correct form of the syllogism style is used.
the premise statements are true.
the syllogism is first determined to be “sound.”
the verbs are written in present tense.
the conclusion proceeds from the premises.
Question 11.11. (TCOs 1, 2) Solving a dilemma involves realizing what aspect of it? (Points : 5)
You will never be satisfied that the right choice was made
Some choices of action are more realistic than others
In deciding to choose one action, the other possible choices will be lost
Not everybody involved will be happy with the choice
There may be significant personal costs to choosing
Question 12.12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) According to Thomas Aquinas, what ethical capacity do people of every culture naturally possess? (Points : 5)
Ability to learn lessons
Question 13.13. (TCOs 2, 8) The single criterion for making decisions in utilitarian ethics is what? (Points : 5)
The experience of pleasure
Accounting for unintended consequences
Fiduciary interests to be honored
The amount of happiness produced
The principle to be honored
Question 14.14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The Social Contract theorist whose troubled childhood was most clearly reflected in his theories was who? (Points : 5)
Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) “Act only according to that maxim…” begins what famous formulation of deontological ethics? (Points : 5)
The Nicomachean Ethics
The Social Contract
The Principle of Utility
The Hypocratic Oath
The Categorical Imperative
Question 16.16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)
Question 17.17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional societies with codes of ethics and conduct enforce what standard on members beyond the paying of dues? (Points : 5)
Not to engage in other businesses for profit outside of the profession
Personal standards of behavior for family members
Pricing structures for services
Non-competition among members
Meeting ethical and competency standards in order to practice within a jurisdiction
Question 18.18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it.
If the virtue is BEING FRIENDLY, and the excess is BEING INGRATIATING, what is the deficiency?
(Points : 5)
There is no deficiency
Question 19.19. (TCOs 8, 9) In personal or organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or consultant employees one of the ethical conflict resolution models of Week 6? (Points : 5)
Objectives of what winning the conflict means get refined and better understood
Conflict management gets slowed down and settled.
Conflict can be handled in a sequential, step-by-step manner
Parties can be reconciled without solving the issues
Personal relationships can be separated from issues
Question 20.20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a postiori manner? (Points : 5)
Question 1. 1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases.
Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision.
Should citizens have an ethical obligation to serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it ethical for a person to refuse to serve?
A significant number of people believe war is always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation’s taking up arms against another. Is this view ethically sound? How about realistically? Please state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position using your ethical position statement.
In answering, be sure to look at both sides of war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong country coming to the aid of a weaker country that has been attacked unjustly. Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this problem.
(Points : 30)
Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the “issues” are, and how an “ethical” person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you read a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation.
Employees’ worth to their employers may diminish before they are eligible for retirement. In such cases, the employer is faced with the dilemma of choosing between retaining an old and trusted yet unproductive worker for 5 or 10 more years, or firing that worker and jeopardizing his or her retirement benefits.
1. Should an employer have an ethical obligation to keep such unproductive, but loyal employees? What if the employee had been a problem his or her entire career? Are there certain circumstances where your answer to these questions would be different?
2. What is the duty of an unproductive employee to his or her employer? Is there an ethical obligation to retire when productivity begins to wane? If a person is simply “coasting” for his or her last few years, is that person “unethical?” Be sure to explain your answer. (Points : 30)
Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel John Stuart Mill would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40)
Question 4. 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) Regina is chairperson of her city’s United Fund campaign. In her annual preparations meeting with her staff of canvassers, she gives this advice: “Hit the business places first. Don’t approach anyone who is walking alone in a hall or working alone in a closed office. Look for two or more people standing together or working side by side. Try to make them compete with each other in generous giving. Capitalize on their desire to show off and outdo the next person.” She then states that the canvasser who raises the most money of all will be awarded with a 5% cut of the total amount that canvasser raises. Her approach pays off and the United Fund raises the most money ever.
Tell what ethical philosophy Regina is using, if any.
Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the character in the situation did, or differently. Why? (Points : 30)
Question 5. 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You are a new employee in a company which creates computer chips for cellular telephones. Your previous employer created similar chips for PDA’s, and 4 weeks after you are hired you are approached by your new boss in a confidential, private meeting. She explains to you that you were hired because of your work on the PDA chips. She wants to know how much of the technology you are aware of from the prior employer which you could apply to your new project on the phone chip.
As a matter of fact, the technology is very similar, and you know that you could quickly and easily apply what you know from the previous project to this one. However, you feel uneasy about giving out that information from your past job. For one thing, you’re pretty sure it was secret information, although you don’t know for sure. However, your last job ended badly as they laid off 20% of the workforce without warning (including you), simply because the owner of the company decided to downsize sell off part of the company to pay for his daughter’s $200,000 wedding.
Your boss watches you as you are thinking through your decision and says, “You know. If this project goes through successfully, a large raise and promotion will be coming your way.” Will you tell your new employer the technology secret? Why or why not? Explain what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion. (Points : 30)
Question 6. 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Blanchard and Peale ethical dilemmas resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)
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