Law Enforcement and Force Research Paper

Need help writing 18-24 page research paper.


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The paper should explore how law enforcement uses force excessively.


GREAT NEWS! It needs 18 Scholarly sources and I have most of them, see attachment for Annottated Blibliography.








                                                         Annotated Bibliography

CJE 4065: Police and Society

Tanya Osse

Dr. Lee C. Bushong

Florida A&M University










Ajilore, O., & Shirey, S. (2017). Do #AllLivesMatter? An evaluation of race and excessive use of force by police. Atlantic Economic Journal, 45(2), 201-212. doi:10.1007/s11293-017-9538-6                                                                                                                                The author was very precise on the thesis of this paper. The journal is packed with fundamental information on police use of force toward African-America. The issue in which were experiencing does not stop at just race. The author state a number of other things that plays a role on the target of minorities by police officers. Here are a few cases that support this statement, for instance, Ferguson, Cleveland, and Rouge. The author discoveries demonstrate that race not only play a role in excessive use of force, it also determines how seriously law enforcement will take your complaints.          

Buchanan, A. (2010). Human rights, legitimacy, and the use of force. Oxford: Oxford University Press.                                                                                                                        Buchanan have completed a thorough research on human rights, legitimacy and use of force. The author broke down the use of force in 5 elements. He dissected five different ways in which the use of force has been normalized in the United states. The five main concept of use of force in the United State are: Legitimacy of humanitarian intervention allows states to align together and engage in military action to defend their citizen human rights, Beyond the nation interest talks about the justification of  the use of military force based off the nation interest, institutionalized the just war talks about the ethics of war, justifying preventative war which talks about using force towards individuals who are not committing wrongful aggression, lastly, The morality illegal international legal reform which says use of force is needed or it will go against the rules of the law.

Hough, R. (2018). The use of force in criminal justice. New York, NY: Routledge.                   The broadness of Dr. Richard Hough’s research and his sharp experiences appear in this exceptional content. The author perfectly captured the point of view of the city practice and scholastic investigation of power. There are an overwhelming number of facts in this text from human perspective on officers. Hough’s was able to find a balance between the two topic in the text.

Kargin, V. (2016). Police use of excessive force: A case study of lethal (deadly) force. European Scientific Journal, 12(1). doi:10.19044/esj.2016.v12n1p488                                     Author wrote about the deadly consequence to excessive use of force. Kargin used a case of 2 African American men who lost their life to use of force to support the thesis. The author input examination of the determinants that influenced the officers’ utilization of deadly power that ultimately ended the life of these men. I was able to view the negative affect of use of force. I notice a reoccurring notation of the lack of emphasis on the consequence of improper use of force.

Knutsson, J. & Kuhns, J. (2010). Police use of force: A global perspective. Choice Reviews Online, 48(03).                                                                                                                  The authors broke down the origin of use of force. I collected data on the purpose of police use of force. I became aware of the proper use of force. The major issue the authors highlighted is how the police force is taking advantage of the use of force. the journal broke down incident that occurred in the United State where improper use of force was being used and how minorities are being targeted.                                          

Kramer, R., & Remster, B. (2018). Stop, frisk, and assault? Racial disparities in police use of force during investigatory stops. Law & Society Review, 52(4), 960-993. doi:10.1111/lasr.12366                                                                                                            The author confirms what many minorities are already aware of; that African-Americans are bound to be halted by police officer over any other race. Several experiments were conducted to examine if racism play a pivot role when it comes to police use of force. Discoveries demonstrate that Black and White regular citizens experience a different interaction with law enforcement. This journal provided very important statics on the ratio of police use of force on different groups of individuals.                                    

Mears, D., Craig, M., Stewart, E., & Warren, P. (2017). Thinking fast, not slow: How cognitive biases may contribute to racial disparities in the use of force in police-citizen encounters. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 53, 12-24. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.09.00 The purpose of this article was to enlighten the people on how racial aberrations in police utilization of power may emerge. The authors were very thorough on how inconsistent the police department are on use of power.  The authors collected a large number of data on policing, racial differences in criminal equity, and intellectual inclination and basic leadership to support the theory that the policing system need an alternative method that does not allow an over use of power, which correlate with the over use of force towards the citizen.                                                                                                                    

Mirow, W. (2016). Strategic culture, securitisation and the use of force. New York, NY: Routledge.

           There are several issues the author target in this book. Mirow provided information about philosophy and causation in universal relations. The hypothetical model fusing vital culture and securitization issues. The author implemented cross examination of use of force. information provide in this book can support the improper use of force in the police department.                                                                                                              

Morabito, M., Socia, K., Wik, A., & Fisher, W. (2017). The nature and extent of police use of force in encounters with people with behavioral health disorders. International Journal Of Law And Psychiatry, 50,(4) 31-37. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2016.10.001

           The authors used data information to support the thesis. Its noted that the treatment of individuals with psychological instabilities by the police has been unethical.  A key issue in CIT advancement has been decrease in the utilization of power by CIT officers because of the complaints of excessive use of force. Be that as it may, to date, meager research looks at variety in police utilization of power by CIT officers crosswise over populaces with psychological instabilities, co-happening issue, and substance misuse issue, when contrasted with their non-scattered friends.

Murphy, J. (2014). Police use of excessive force in disorganized neighborhoods. Police Practice And Research, 16(2), 188-189. doi:10.1080/15614263.2014.972624                              The specialist to utilize constrain, including deadly power is a characterizing highlight of the police calling. A cop’s choice to utilize constrain conveys substantial outcomes. The circumstance including the utilization of power are regularly portrayed by a quickly advancing situation, complexed condition, extensive vulnerability, and many more. Police has the ability to take someone life away. With great power, comes great responsibility. The author used qualitative research as the core foundation of this paper. Elaborating on all aspects of use of force.

Newton, S. (2018). The excessive use of force against blacks in the United States of America. The International Journal Of Human Rights, 22(8), 1067-1086. doi:10.1080/13642987.2018.1495196                                                                                     This paper looks at the lopsided killings of Blacks in the United States by the police. The author contend that the lawful benchmarks in the control the utilization of power by cops, are corrupted with predisposition and don’t conform to global law. Newton further contend that that the fantastic jury procedure and investigators associated with indicting cops who execute blacks are spoiled with understood predisposition. In expectation to police slaying, this would be the outcome. Newton close with a few suggestions on the best way to battle police severity against blacks.                                                                                            

Palmiotto, M. (2016). Police use of force Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis.

           Police use of force has been a worry for police offices and nationals in the United States. When police began conveying weapons. Dr. Palmiotto presents the most imperative issues confronting the police and the networks they supposed to serve for a greater good. It begins with a careful chronicled presentation, covers utilization of power, destructive power, non-deadly weapons, militarization of policing, racism and profiling, legitimate cases, brain science, recognition and preparing, and anticipation. Contextual analyses of celebrated cases including Rodney King and the Ferguson shooting are incidences used to support the thesis.


Prater, L. (2018). Excessive use of force. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.                                                                                                                         The formation of police force is to obligate by the law of the state. Majority of officers comply with the regulation. However, there have been occurrences in which this was not the situation. Police fierceness and unfortunate behavior has been under the magnifying glass throughout the years. Loretta Prater uncovers these issues through research reports and various instances of cases, including the incident involving her own son. She speaks on the use of force correlating with police brutality.

Roberson, C. (2017). Police misconduct (pp. 40-100). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, an imprint of Taylor and Francis.

           This book investigates the diverse sorts of police misconduct and the utilization of exorbitant power. The author inquires which officers end up associated with unlawful behavior, solutions on repairing are broken system, and talks about who should be policing the police. Some of the supporting documents are recorded examination of police misconduct, dialogs on the legitimate confinements intended to avert police wrongdoing, and etc.  

Roiphe, R. (2017). The duty to charge in police use of excessive force cases. SSRN Electronic Journal, 65(4), 25-30,41-44. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2999755

           Law researcher believe justice must start from the ground up. Individuals that played a role in the earlier routines of human rights mishandling needs to be held responsible to misconduct. This kind of exemption compromises the standard of law and botches the chance to fortify imperative vote based qualities. This Article targets on worldwide law that grant investigation to occur when a malpractice take place. The author highlights the system effort to hold everyone accountable for their actions. Police utilization of unnecessary power against unarmed African-American suspects is unlawful and inhumane.  

Staller, M., Christiansen, P., Zaiser, B., Körner, S., & Cole, J. (2017). Do they aggress earlier? investigating the effects of ego depletion on police officers’ use of force behavior. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33(4), 332-344. doi:10.1007/s11896-017-9249-6                                                                                             The authors talk about the purpose of use of force. This journal breaks down how the government allows lethal use of force; which is part of the protocol. However, is unfortunate for cops to act outside the overseeing legitimate and moral system. In the meantime, officer’s duty is to endeavor control and cease from over the top utilization of force.  The journal highlighted moments where officers disregarded protocol.

Staller, M., Müller, M., Christiansen, P., Zaiser, B., Körner, S., & Cole, J. (2018). Ego depletion and the use of force: Investigating the effects of ego depletion on police officers’ intention to use force. Aggressive behavior, 45(2). doi:10.1002/ab.21805

          The authors use research data to support the theory between relations of excessive to use of force and justified use of force. They used two test to further support the finding. The tests were led utilizing officers from a German State Police drive. The outcome of the experiment demonstrates that conditions that produce inner self exhaustion allows offices to subconsciously utilize power through lessening discretion. This has significant ramifications for the police utilization of power and how we comprehend cops’ basic leadership in light of incitement.

U.S. department of homeland security, Office of Inspector General. (2017). DHS lacks oversight of component use of force (redacted) (pp. 17-21). Washington, DC.

           DSH targeted several important concern when it comes to use of force. The author spoke about improper and proper use of force. The author also touched on the lack of training on use of force. Some of the areas police department lack in are: a specific division that oversees excessive use of force claims, creating a dialogue on use of force to help minimize physical interactions with the public, and many more.

Wittrup, B. (2016). Improving use-of-force outcomes: never mind the numbers Improving use-of-force outcomes: never mind the numbers. Corrections Today, 78(6).

           Regardless of one’s perspective, it is not difficult to achieve consensus on the fact that use of force is a significant issue in law enforcement, and corrections is no exception.







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